The Fear of Monkeys - The Best E-Zine on the Web for Politically Conscious Writing The Long-Tailed Macaque - Issue Two
The Fear of Monkeys
Get To Know

The Long-tailed Macaque

The Long-tailed Macaque Long-tailed macaques are found in primary, secondary, coastal, mangrove, swamp, and riverine forests in Southern Indochina, Burma, Indonesia, Philippines, and India's Nicobar Islands. These monkeys sport gray to reddish brown body hair, which is lighter on their undersides. The hair on the crown of the head grows into a pointed crest. Male long-tailed macaques have whiskers and mustaches; females have beards. While males grow to between 16 and 25 inches tall, females only reach an average height of 15 to 19 inches. Males weigh approximately 10 to 18 pounds and females 5 to 12 pounds. Long-tailed macaques live in groups of 10 to 48 individuals. Their average lifespan is 37.1 years. Sixty-four percent of the long-tailed macaque's diet consists of fruit. Seeds, buds, leaves, other plant parts, and animals such as insects, frogs, and crabs make up the rest.


Avant-Garde Art during the Soviet Revolution


Melissa Major

     Where does a revolution come from, and why does it happen? A revolution takes place when there is no other way out. The masses advance and retreat several times before they make up their minds to the final assault.
     It was at the end of the 1920s that the true misfortunes of the Soviet revolution began sweeping their bitter winds across Russia. While America was uniting the bible and the dollar, Russia was in transformation, a time of great political chaos and social upheaval. Rations were scarce, the acquisition of money was difficult and the acquisition of goods necessary for survival almost impossible. Icy winds blustered off of the Gulf of Finland but the shops carried no warm clothes. There was only window after window full of flowers, corsets, dog collars, false hair- bourgeois items for which there was absolutely no demand. Lines of people waiting for their bread, sugar and tobacco rations started forming at four-o-clock each morning.
     Millions of people disappeared at the hand of the Soviet government, including the majority of Soviet officials themselves. No person was free from the fear of that sudden knock at the door, where tragic uncertainty was the invariable consequence. The whole country was spying on one another- the walls really did have ears.
     Thousands awoke daily to the disappearance of their husband, wife, parent, child. And worse, they were forced into silence about the event, forced to burn or black out any pictures of disappeared individuals. The physical eradication of any of Stalin's perceived opponents by the secret police was followed by their obliteration from all forms of pictographic and literary evidence. Russian citizens, fearful of the consequences of being caught in possession of material considered "anti-Soviet" or "counterrevolutionary" were forced to deface their own copies of books and photographs, often savagely attacking them with scissors or disfiguring them with India ink. There is hardly a publication from the Stalinist period that does not bear the scars of this political vandalism. In effect, this is how Stalin ultimately achieved the power to change history. In fact, this warped version of history was still being taught in schools well into the 1980s.
     So how did it all persevere so long? Because art, sport, science, literature- everything propagated the great Soviet duty, or was abolished. Millions internalized this empowering Soviet dream. And those who did not embrace the Soviet dream found themselves arrested, executed or as slaves in gulags, where cats, dogs and other people were the only food source. The country was surrounded by propaganda and signs crying "Death to the Enemies of the People!"
     Literature during this time was in the process of being mutilated by vigorous government involvement in the arts. Satire was forcefully diminishing and the State's goal became clear: the creation of a unified literary voice and a mechanism to guarantee that the voice spoke accurately and on cue, in the specified style called socialist realism. All literary organizations were forced to disband, and in their place a new union was created. The Union of Soviet Writers, motivated by the "achievements of socialist reconstruction."…And when there was a divergence from this voice by a writer, they were not to be punished. Not in the great Soviet Union. Instead, they were rehabilitated. Writers and academics alike came to expect arrest, exile and imprisonment. In essence, what may have been seen as standard absurdism in the west was daring and even dangerous in the Soviet context.
     "OBERIU" - the Russian acronym for The Association of Real Art - was the last avant-garde group of literary artists that survived this period. Although most of the artists were arrested and died at the hand of the Red Army, some of their work managed to escape the shredders and fires of an unforgiving government. The work of OBERIU, including the works of Daniil Kharms, Aleksandr Vvedensky, Konstantin Vaginov, Nikolay Zabolotsky and Nikolay Oleinikov, are considered by some to be the most important manifestation of Soviet avant-garde art during the late 1920s. Their non-conformist works, banned for so long, can finally be enjoyed all over the world.



All Content Copyright of Fear of Monkeys