Long-tailed Macaque Long-tailed macaques are found in primary, secondary,
coastal, mangrove, swamp, and riverine forests in Southern Indochina,
Burma, Indonesia, Philippines, and India's Nicobar Islands. These monkeys
sport gray to reddish brown body hair, which is lighter on their undersides.
The hair on the crown of the head grows into a pointed crest. Male long-tailed
macaques have whiskers and mustaches; females have beards. While males
grow to between 16 and 25 inches tall, females only reach an average height
of 15 to 19 inches. Males weigh approximately 10 to 18 pounds and females
5 to 12 pounds. Long-tailed macaques live in groups of 10 to 48 individuals.
Their average lifespan is 37.1 years. Sixty-four percent of the long-tailed
macaque's diet consists of fruit. Seeds, buds, leaves, other plant parts,
and animals such as insects, frogs, and crabs make up the rest.
Avant-Garde Art during the Soviet Revolution
Where does a revolution come
from, and why does it happen? A revolution takes place when there is no
other way out. The masses advance and retreat several times before they
make up their minds to the final assault.
It was at the end of the 1920s that the
true misfortunes of the Soviet revolution began sweeping their bitter
winds across Russia. While America was uniting the bible and the dollar,
Russia was in transformation, a time of great political chaos and social
upheaval. Rations were scarce, the acquisition of money was difficult
and the acquisition of goods necessary for survival almost impossible.
Icy winds blustered off of the Gulf of Finland but the shops carried no
warm clothes. There was only window after window full of flowers, corsets,
dog collars, false hair- bourgeois items for which there was absolutely
no demand. Lines of people waiting for their bread, sugar and tobacco
rations started forming at four-o-clock each morning.
Millions of people disappeared at the hand
of the Soviet government, including the majority of Soviet officials themselves.
No person was free from the fear of that sudden knock at the door, where
tragic uncertainty was the invariable consequence. The whole country was
spying on one another- the walls really did have ears.
Thousands awoke daily to the disappearance
of their husband, wife, parent, child. And worse, they were forced into
silence about the event, forced to burn or black out any pictures of disappeared
individuals. The physical eradication of any of Stalin's perceived opponents
by the secret police was followed by their obliteration from all forms
of pictographic and literary evidence. Russian citizens, fearful of the
consequences of being caught in possession of material considered "anti-Soviet"
or "counterrevolutionary" were forced to deface their own copies of books
and photographs, often savagely attacking them with scissors or disfiguring
them with India ink. There is hardly a publication from the Stalinist
period that does not bear the scars of this political vandalism. In effect,
this is how Stalin ultimately achieved the power to change history. In
fact, this warped version of history was still being taught in schools
well into the 1980s.
So how did it all persevere so long? Because
art, sport, science, literature- everything propagated the great Soviet
duty, or was abolished. Millions internalized this empowering Soviet dream.
And those who did not embrace the Soviet dream found themselves arrested,
executed or as slaves in gulags, where cats, dogs and other people were
the only food source. The country was surrounded by propaganda and signs
crying "Death to the Enemies of the People!"
Literature during this time was in the process
of being mutilated by vigorous government involvement in the arts. Satire
was forcefully diminishing and the State's goal became clear: the creation
of a unified literary voice and a mechanism to guarantee that the voice
spoke accurately and on cue, in the specified style called socialist realism.
All literary organizations were forced to disband, and in their place
a new union was created. The Union of Soviet Writers, motivated by the
"achievements of socialist reconstruction."…And when there was a divergence
from this voice by a writer, they were not to be punished. Not in the
great Soviet Union. Instead, they were rehabilitated. Writers and academics
alike came to expect arrest, exile and imprisonment. In essence, what
may have been seen as standard absurdism in the west was daring and even
dangerous in the Soviet context.
"OBERIU" - the Russian acronym for The Association
of Real Art - was the last avant-garde group of literary artists that
survived this period. Although most of the artists were arrested and died
at the hand of the Red Army, some of their work managed to escape the
shredders and fires of an unforgiving government. The work of OBERIU,
including the works of Daniil Kharms, Aleksandr Vvedensky, Konstantin
Vaginov, Nikolay Zabolotsky and Nikolay Oleinikov, are considered by some
to be the most important manifestation of Soviet avant-garde art during
the late 1920s. Their non-conformist works, banned for so long, can finally
be enjoyed all over the world.